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The largest planet of our
known solar system,
Jupiter is fifth from the Sun and the largest.
Jupiter (Greek: Zeus) was the supreme god of the Roman pantheon; a god
of light and sky,
and protector of the state and its laws.
- Jupiter's Satellites:
Metis is the innermost of Jupiter's known satellites.
In Greek mythology, the Greek personification of wisdom; the first
wife of Zeus.
Adrastea is the second of Jupiter's known satellites.
In Greek mythology the goddess Adrastea punished human injustice.
Amalthea is the third of Jupiter's known satellites.
In Greek mythology, Amaltheia was the divine goat (or nymph) who
suckled the infant
Zeus on Crete.
Thebe is the fourth of Jupiter's known satellites.
In Greek mythology Thebe was a nymph, the daughter of the river god
Io is the fifth of Jupiter's known satellites and the third largest;
it is the innermost of the
Galilean moons. Io is slightly larger than Earth's Moon.
In Greek mythology, Io was a princess whom Zeus transformed into a
white heifer to
hide her from his ever jealous wife.
Europa is the sixth of Jupiter's known satellites and the fourth
largest; it is the second
of the Galilean moons.
Europa is slightly smaller than the Earth's
In Greek mythology Europa was a Phoenician princess who was abducted
to Crete by
Ganymede is the seventh and largest of Jupiter's known satellites.
Ganymede is the
third of the Galilean moons.
In Greek mythology Ganymede was a Trojan prince of great beauty whom
cupbearer to the gods.
Callisto is the eighth of Jupiter's known satellites and the second
largest. It is the
outermost of the Galilean moons.
In Greek mythology Callisto was a nymph, beloved of Zeus. Hera
changed the woman
into a bear and Zeus then placed her in the sky as the constellation
Leda is the ninth of Jupiter's known satellites and the smallest.
In Greek mythology Leda was queen of Sparta. Visited by Zeus in the
form of a swan,
she became the mother of Helen and Pollux.
Himalia is the tenth of Jupiter's known satellites.
In Greek mythology Himalia was a nymph who bore three sons of Zeus.
Lysithea is the eleventh of Jupiter's known satellites.
In Greek mythology Lysithea was a daughter of Oceanus and one of
Zeus' many lovers.
Elara is the twelfth of Jupiter's known satellites.
In Greek mythology Elara was the mother by Zeus of the giant Tityus.
Ananke is the thirteenth of Jupiter's known satellites.
In Greek mythology Ananke was the personification of unalterable
necessity, or fate.
Carme is the fourteenth of Jupiter's known satellites.
In Greek mythology the mother of Britomartis, a Cretan goddess.
Pasiphae is the fifteenth of Jupiter's known satellites.
In Greek mythology Pasiphae was the wife of Minos and mother, by a
white bull, of
Sinope is the outermost of Jupiter's known satellites.
In Greek mythology Sinope was a daughter of Asopus, and mother of
Jupiter was called the "Greater
the Ancients, an extremely positive influence. Today, we realize that we can have
much of a good thing, so it has come to represent "excesses", as well
as good fortune.
"More of everything" and "growing outward", as well as "protection",
that is Jupiter. It is interesting to note, that the physical planet affords us,
on Earth, a measure of protection, as it's great gravitational field attracts
many objects that might otherwise strike this planet. Where Jupiter is found,
there is a need and opportunity for expansion and fulfillment.
The natural ruler of
Sagittarius (and Pisces to the Ancients), Jupiter shows where we grow and expand
good or ill (the choice is ours). It is associated with wealth, good humor, tolerance,
under certain conditions, it can show overconfidence and boorish behavior. Jupiter
our beliefs, philosophy, and growth into the outer.
Physically, Sagittarius rules the hips,
thighs, muscles, sciatic
nerves, and the motor nerve action.
For colors, gemstones, and metals, Sagittarius is associated
with deep blue, sea green, turquoise, and purples; the semi-precious gemstone
of turquoise; and the metal of tin.
- Mean distance from Sun: 5.20 AU; 778,330,000
- Diameter: 142.796 km
- Equatorial radius 71,492 km
- Mass: 317.89 Earth-mass
- Density: 1.3 grams per cubic centimeter
- Surface temperature: -200 F
- Mean cloud temperature: -121°C
- Wind speeds: Up to ~150 m/s (30 deg.
- Atmospheric composition: Hydrogen - 89%;
Helium - 11%;
- Minor (ppm): Methane - ~2000; Ammonia
- Hydrogen Deuteride - 20; Ethane - ~5;
(H2O) - 1
- Aerosols: Ammonia ice, water ice,
- Orbital period (Length of jovian year):
11 years, 321 days
- Mean orbital velocity: 13.06 km/s
- Rotational period: 9 hours, 56 minutes
- Length of jovian day: 0.41 Earth-day
- Tilt of axis: 3.13°
- Number of known satellites: 16:
Adrastea, Amalthea, Ananke, Callisto, Carme, Elara, Europa, Ganymede, Himalia,
Io, Leda, Lysithea, Metis, Pasiphae, Sinope, and Thebe
Jupiter is aptly named for the king of
the gods in the Greco-Roman
pantheon. This planet is more massive than all of the others combined, plus their
satellites, the asteroids and all the comets. The planet's magnetic field is so
powerful that it creates a sphere of influence around Jupiter that is larger than
Voyager spacecraft discovered a tenuous
ring system around it and that its
Moon-sized satellite, Io, is wracked by volcanism far more intense than any we
find on our own planet.
Even in a small telescope, Jupiter is distinguished by bands of colors that change
their appearance over time. More remarkable is a persistent pattern of winds that
have lasted for the many decades that the planet has been observed from Earth.
The huge oval storm known as the Great Red Spot has persisted for at least 300
The composition of the clouds is still
a mystery. The white ones are almost
certainly ammonia cirrus, but a variety of pale pastels, mainly variations in
yellow and brown with some salmon and blue-gray patches, indicates that chemical
reactions are producing colored substances from the main gaseous constituents.
Sulfur compounds are the likely sources of such colors, but no identification
has yet been made.
Jupiter's deep gaseous atmosphere merges imperceptibly into a layer of a liquid
hydrogen. Within the planet pressure and temperature are so high that there is
no clear boundary between the gas and liquid. Closer to Jupiter's center, the
pressure becomes high enough to squeeze electrons out of the hydrogen atoms so
they can move freely through the liquified gas as they do in metals. Jupiter's
intense magnetic field is generated within this highly conducting layer of metallic
[Mercury] [Venus] [Mars]
[Uranus] [Neptune] [Pluto]
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